Information on sugar and sugar substitutes, lasers and photodynamic therapy, inflammation, World Diabetes Day
With the onset of fall upon us, FOCUS Editorial Director Maria Perno Goldie, RDH, MS, provides information in this issue on a plethora of topics. Included are articles on sugar and sugar substitutes, lasers and photodynamic therapy, inflammatory markers and periodontal diseases, and the annual celebration of World Diabetes Day.
Happy Fall to everyone. As the days get shorter, and the weather becomes cooler, we say good-bye to the dog days of summer and look for to the holidays ahead and the New Year. This issue features much- needed information on sugar and sugar substitutes, as well as lasers photo dynamic therapy, inflammation, and World Diabetes Day. Thanks to Karen and Dagmar for their contributions.
Common to both diabetes and excessive consumption of sugar is obesity. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a drug for overweight/obesity, and it is lorcaserin HCl (Belviq) (Arena Pharmaceuticals).(1,2) It has been approved as an addition to a reduced-calorie diet and exercise regimen for chronic weight management. It is approved for use in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater (obese) or adults with a BMI of 27 or greater (overweight) and who have at least one weight-related condition such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, or dyslipidemia.
The medication works by activating the serotonin 2C receptor in the brain, which is thought to help a person eat less and feel full after eating smaller amounts of food. The safety and efficacy of lorcaserin were evaluated in three randomized, placebo-controlled trials that included nearly 8,000 obese and overweight patients, with and without type 2 diabetes, treated for 52 to 104 weeks.
All participants received lifestyle modification that included a reduced-calorie diet and exercise counseling. Compared with placebo, treatment with lorcaserin for up to 1 year was associated with an average weight loss of 3% to 3.7%. The most common adverse reactions of lorcaserin in nondiabetic patients are headache, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, dry mouth, and constipation. In patients with diabetes, hypoglycemia, headache, back pain, cough, and fatigue were most common.
As well, there are new resources available that focus on oral health of pregnant women. The National Maternal and Child Oral Health Policy Center (NMCOHPC), in collaboration with the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs (AMCHP), Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD), March of Dimes (MOD), and Washington Dental Service (WDS) Foundation, has released a brief that focuses on the oral health of pregnant women and young children.(3)
The brief is designed to provide state policymakers a brief review of the research and evidence on dental care during the perinatal period, according to the center. It identifies current state guidelines that have been developed, reviews liability issues for dentists and medical providers, and outlines current state policy options to support the oral health of pregnant women and young children. It is available for download.(4)
In associated news, the National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center has issued "Oral Health Care During Pregnancy," a national consensus statement and summary of an expert work group meeting. This document is intended to help professionals working in states and communities plan, develop, and implement programs to help ensure that pregnant women receive optimal oral health services. It was developed with support from the Maternal and Child Heath Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration.(5)
There is also a new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Report on the Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States.(6)
According to the report, one out of every two American adults aged 30 and over has periodontal disease. The findings are based on data collected as part of CDC’s 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States.(7)
The 2009-2010 NHANES included for the first time a full-mouth periodontal examination to assess for mild, moderate, or severe periodontitis, making it the most comprehensive survey of periodontal health ever conducted in the U.S. Researchers measured periodontitis because it is the most destructive form of periodontal disease. Gingivitis, the earliest stage of periodontal disease, was not assessed.
A flawed disclosure causes a retraction on a disinfection paper recently published in the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA).(8)
The paper was retracted after learning that the author took liberties with certain critical information about the trial. The article, “The Effect of Long-Term Disinfection on Clinical Contact Surfaces,” was written by Charles John Palenik, who retired as director of infection control research and services at Indiana University in 2011.(9)
I hope you enjoy the Fall and this newsletter. Let us hear from you, and what topics you would like to see in this newsletter. Click on: “Talk to the Editor.”
Maria Perno Goldie, RDH, MS
To read previous RDH eVillage FOCUS introductions by Maria Perno Goldie, go to introductions.