Morris Plains, N.J., March 27, 2002 ? Data from three separate clinical studies published in the Journal of Dental Research, showed that chewing sugar-free gum containing casein phosphopeptide ? amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) (Recaldent™) significantly enhanced the remineralization of the enamel surface of teeth. In these studies, the addition of 0.19 mg, 10.0 mg, 18.8 mg and 56.4 mg of CPP-ACP (Recaldent) to either sorbitol or xylitol based gum resulted in a dose-related increase in enamel remineralization of 9%, 63%, 102% and 152%, respectively, compared to the sugar-free gum without CPP-ACP.
"The enamel surface of the tooth is in a constant process of demineralization and remineralization. Demineralization is generally caused by oral bacteria in plaque that feed on sugars and soluble starches in the mouth producing plaque acids adjacent to the tooth surfaces that result in mineral loss in the teeth," noted Jack W. Vincent, D.D.S., Ph.D. "Remineralization is the natural process that works to replenish the essential minerals. Recaldent enhances remineralization by helping to replenish minerals lost by teeth during demineralization."
The studies, published under the title "Remineralization of Enamel Subsurface Lesions by Sugar-Free Chewing Gum Containing CPP-ACP," were conducted at the School of Dental Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, and were designed to determine the ability of CPP-ACP (Recaldent) in sugar-free chewing gum to remineralize the enamel surface of teeth. Patients were divided into three treatment groups: those who chewed sugar-free gum with CPP-ACP (Recaldent) and without, and those who did not chew gum at all.
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The non-gum chewing group yielded a 3.6 ± 0.9% average enamel remineralization. The use of either the sorbitol or xylitol based gum without CPP-ACP more than doubled the average enamel remineralization to 9.0 ± 0.4%. The addition of CPP-ACP to the sugar-free gum further enhanced the process resulting in significantly greater remineralization relative to sugar-free gum not containing CPP-ACP (Recaldent).
"These findings showcase that chewing a sugar-free gum with CPP-ACP (Recaldent) should be considered an important addition to a preventive oral care program," Vincent added.
About Recaldent Technology
Recaldent, the trademark applied to CPP-ACP technology when used in the oral health care sector, is only found in Trident White™ and Trident For Kids™. The University of Melbourne School of Dental Science has researched Recaldent actively since the early 1980s, and in a previous study, a Recaldent solution used twice daily produced a 51% reduction in enamel mineral loss caused by frequent sugar solution exposure.
"Sugar-free gum is an excellent way to promote enamel remineralization," noted Vincent. "Patients who chew gum or would like to chew gum should chew sugar-free gum containing CPP-ACP (Recaldent)."
Clinical Study Design
The fourteen-day, randomized, double-blind, crossover studies included more than 30 healthy adult subjects with no current caries activity, periodontal disease or other oral pathology. None of the subjects were using antibiotics or medications that could have affected salivary flow. Warner Lambert Consumer Group, Pfizer Inc, supported the studies and approval for the studies was obtained from the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee.
Patients were asked to wear removable palatal appliances with six, human-enamel, half-slabs inset containing subsurface demineralized lesion. The other half of each enamel slab was used as the controlled demineralized lesion. One hour after brushing their teeth, subjects were instructed to insert their appliances and then chew the gums at their natural chewing frequency for 20 minutes, four times daily. The intra-oral appliances were inserted immediately before gum chewing for 20 minutes and were retained for a further 20 minutes immediately after gum chewing. Subjects in the non-gum chewing group also wore the appliance. At the completion of each treatment the enamel slabs were removed, paired with their respective demineralized control, embedded, sectioned and subjected to microradiography and image analysis to measure level of remineralization.