Oral surgery protocol to control bleeding for heart patients shows positive results

Dec. 16, 2011
Oral surgery protocol to control bleeding for heart patients shows positive results.

Journal of Oral Implantology — Cardiac patients who take anticoagulant medications and need a tooth extraction face an increased risk of bleeding that must be addressed by the treating clinician. Therefore, a protocol for heart patients is needed that will avoid significant bleeding after dental extractions without suspending anticoagulant therapy.

A study reported in the current issue of the Journal of Oral Implantology evaluated the use of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin biomaterial. This material is commonly used in dentistry to improve healing and tissue regeneration. It was tested as a safe filling and hemostatic material after dental extractions in 50 heart patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy.

These heart patients had mechanical valve substitutions, and then were placed on anticoagulant oral therapy with warfarin. It is not recommended that the anticoagulant be suspended and replaced with heparin before a minor surgery, although this substitution may control the risk of postoperative bleeding.

One method of controlling bleeding without suspending the anticoagulant is the use of platelet-rich plasma gel placed in postextraction tooth sockets. Although this protocol has been successful, there are barriers to its daily use. The platelet concentrates are expensive and take a long time to prepare.

Platelet-rich fibrin offers an alternative biomaterial that is simple and inexpensive to prepare. Blood is collected in tubes without anticoagulant and centrifuged. It divides into three layers, creating a strong platelet-rich fibrin clot in the middle layer. Platelet-rich fibrin has proved useful in daily dental practice as filling material for regeneration in order to place implants.

In this study, 50 heart patients following an anticoagulant therapy were treated with leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin clots placed into postextraction sockets. Complications of bleeding were reported in only two of these patients, and 10 had mild bleeding. All complications were resolved within a few hours after the oral surgery.

Additionally, the study reported no painful events, quick healing of soft tissue, and complete wound closure within one week after oral surgery. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin offers an excellent option for use in heart patients on an anticoagulant regimen.

Full text of the article, “Prevention of Hemorrhagic Complications After Dental Extractions Into Open Heart Surgery Patients Under Anticoagulant Therapy: The Use of Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin,” Journal of Oral Implantology, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2011, is available by clicking here.

The Journal of Oral Implantology is the official publication of the American Academy of Implant Dentistry and of the American Academy of Implant Prosthodontics. It is dedicated to providing valuable information to general dentists, oral surgeons, prosthodontists, periodontists, scientists, clinicians, laboratory owners and technicians, manufacturers, and educators. The JOI distinguishes itself as the first and oldest journal in the world devoted exclusively to implant dentistry. For more information about the journal or society, please click here.