- Recommendations will focus on health maintenance like education about the cause of caries, and reinforce good dietary habits as well as oral hygiene.
- Annual recare, and rescreenings with X-rays every two or three years.
- Daily use of fluoride is suggested with the CariFree Maintenance Rinse.
- Control of pH in saliva is advised with the use of xylitol products, baking soda dentifrices, and antimicrobial rinses with low acidity. (Xylitol is an alcohol-based sugar that Streptococcus mutans cannot metabolize to produce acids.)
- Remineralization products, if necessary, are recommended such as the newer CPP-ACP toothpastes (MI-Paste). Fluoride and this calcium-based toothpaste should be used at least two hours apart because the positively charged ions in the Ca PO4 might cancel with the negative charge of the fluoride, neutralizing the effect.
- As usual, periodontal health and occlusal dental disease evaluations are made, and elective cosmetic procedures can be performed with no restrictions in the type of materials used.
If the patient is at moderate risk —
Some demineralization lesions will be present, but no caries or new restorations have been present in the past three years. There are no visible cavitation lesions and the potential for disease is in the form of white decalcification spots.
- Treatment is focused on remineralization strategies and maintenance of healthy biofilm.
- Fluoride varnishes are applied, daily use of fluoride rinses and xylitol is recommended, and pH-neutralizing toothpastes are recommended.
- Diet control reducing frequency of snacking, refined carbohydrates, fruit juices, and soda is recommended.
- Patient is educated on dental caries causes and risk factors. Recare and rescreening twice a year is recommended with X-rays every 18 to 24 months and fluoride varnishes applied at the time of the appointment.
If the patient is at high risk —
Possible inadequate saliva flow, evident cavitation and radiographic lesions, and a high number on the bacterial test will require a multiple approach and a staged treatment plan.
- The patient will be placed on a CariFree Treatment Rinse containing sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite to neutralize the amount of acid-producing bacteria.
- After a month, we will retest the acidity and bacterial levels. If the number is still high, the patient will continue the “Treatment Rinse” for another month.
- Existing cavitations might be treated with debridement and glass ionomer restorations to stop the caries process. Fluoride varnish treatment and daily antimicrobial, fluoride rinses and xylitol are also used.
- Counseling on diet is reviewed as well along with oral hygiene.
- After bacterial activity is controlled and the patient is documented as a low caries risk, a long-term restorative plan is made.
- Recare and reevaluations are recommended every three months; biofilm activity, compliance, and pH levels are considered.
- A definite treatment plan will be establish once we determine that the patient is at low risk.
ReferencesA Clinician's Guide to CAMBRA: A Simple Approach http://carifree.com/dentists/science_09/documents/AClinicalLookatCAMBRADPRAug2007_000.pdf March 2009, Douglas A Young, DDS, MS, MBA; V Kim Kutsch, DMD; Joe Whitehouse, DDSATP Bioluminescence: Quantitative Assessment of Plaque Bacteria Surrounding Orthodontic Appliances; R Sauerwein, P Pellegrini, T Finlayson, J Kimmell, I Kasimi, D Covell Jr, T Maier, CA Machida, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, USAPlaque Retention by Self-Ligating vs Elastomeric Orthodontic Brackets: Quantitative Comparison of Oral Bacteria and Detection with Adenosine Triphosphate-Driven Bioluminescence, P Pellegrini, R Sauerwein, T Finlayson, J McLeod, D Covell Jr, T Maier, CA Machida; American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, April 2009Salivary biomass assessed by bioluminescence ATP assay related to (bacterial and somatic) cell counts http://www.carifree.com/dentists/science/documents/Salivarybiomass_000.pdfCell Biochemistry and Function 18, 103-108 (2000); F Gallez, M Fadel, O Scruel, F Cantraine, P CourtThe use of ATP bioluminescence as a measure of cell proliferation and cytotoxicity http://www.carifree.com/dentists/science/documents/ATPCellProliferationCrouchKozlowSlater.pdf Journal of Immunological Methods 160, 81-88 (1993); S Crouch, R Kozlowski, K Slater, J FletcherA Clinical Look at CAMBRA http://carifree.com/dentists/science_09/documents/AClinicalLookatCAMBRADPRAug2007.pdf August 2007, Dr. BC Nelson, Dr. Carson Kutsch, Dr. V Kim K